One of the first frauds in the history of Darwinism, known as “recapitulation theory,” and heralded as undeniable “proof of evolution,” was an idea proposed and propagated by a racist eugenicist Professor named Ernst Haeckel in the late 19th century. A contemporary and friend of Charles Darwin and Thomas “Bulldog” Huxley, Haeckel postulated that human (and other animal) embryos experience a miniature form of the entire evolutionary impulse during their development in the womb, displaying first characteristics of fish, then reptile, and lastly mammalian or human. It has long been eliminated from scientific literature, but many people and popular sources still unknowingly quote and believe in Haeckel’s fraudulent work. Several popular magazines and school textbooks as recently as the 1990s, over a century after being exposed, were still publishing Haeckel’s hoaxed pictures and recapitulation theory as science fact!
“It has since been proven that this theory is completely bogus. It is now known that the ‘gills’ that supposedly appear in the early stages of the human embryo are in fact the initial phases of the middle-ear canal, parathyroid, and thymus. The part of the embryo that was likened to the ‘egg yolk pouch’ turns out to be a pouch that produces blood for the infant. The part that had been identified as a ‘tail’ by Haeckel and his followers is in fact the backbone, which resembles a tail only because it takes shape before the legs do. Another interesting aspect of ‘recapitulation’ was Ernst Haeckel himself, a faker who falsified his drawings in order to support the theory he advanced. Haeckel’s forgeries purported to show that fish and human embryos resembled one another. When he was caught out, the only defense he offered was that other evolutionists had committed similar offences!” -Harun Yahya, “The Evolution Deceit” (199-200)
Haeckel was charged with fraud by five professors and convicted by a university court at Jena where he admitted that several of his drawings were forgeries, that he was merely filling in missing links where evidence was thin, and that hundreds of his contemporaries were guilty of the same charge! During the trial he said; “After this compromising confession of forgery I should be obliged to consider myself condemned and annihilated if I had not the consolation of seeing side by side with me in the prisoners’ dock hundreds of fellow culprits, among them many of the most trusted observers and most esteemed biologists. The great majority of all the diagrams in the best biological textbooks, treatises and journals would incur in the same degree the charge of forgery, for all of them are inexact, and are more or less doctored, schematized and constructed.”
What an admission! Not only did Haeckel confess his own forgeries, but he admitted that there were hundreds of other scientific fraudsters similarly doctoring findings in the best biological textbooks, treatises and journals (several of which will be examined in this chapter). As it turns out, Haeckel had simply copied and printed the same human embryo pictures several times over claiming each were various other animal embryos with exact parallels, when in fact the parallels do not exist, and the pictures were copies he knowingly and intentionally made to suit his recapitulation idea.
“To support his theory, Haeckel, whose knowledge of embryology was self-taught, faked some of his evidence. He not only altered his illustrations of embryos but also printed the same plate of an embryo three times, and labeled one a human, the second a dog and the third a rabbit ‘to show their similarity.’” -Malcolm Bowden, “Ape-Men: Fact or Fallacy?”
“This is one of the worst cases of scientific fraud. It’s shocking to find that somebody one thought was a great scientist was deliberately misleading. It makes me angry … What Haeckel did was to take a human embryo and copy it, pretending that the salamander and the pig and all the others looked the same at the same stage of development. They don’t … These are fakes.” -Dr. Michael Richardson, The Times London, Aug. 11, 1997
For the past 150 years, evolutionist scientists have been working diligently to propagandize the public into believing that modern humans are descended from ancient apes. The final and most difficult theoretical leap for the theory of evolution is this supposed million-year transition from ape to human. The utter impossibility of “evolving” abilities like bipedality, erect spinal columns, and complex linguistic skills has been debated since the theory was first presented, but such obstacles will never stop die-hard evolutionists set on discovering (or inventing!) a believable monkey-man transitional species.
The first of these convenient evolutionary “discoveries” was the “Neanderthal Man” found in the Neander Valley of Germany in 1856, just in time for the release of Darwin’s Origin of Species. To this day, reconstructed drawings of hairy ape-like “Neanderthal” men are depicted in scholarly journals and school textbooks and claimed to be a missing evolutionary link. The fact is, however, that all so-called Neanderthal remains have never been shown to be any more different from modern humans than an Asian from a Caucasian, or an Inuit from an Aborigine. Also the skull size shows its brain was actually 13% larger than the average brain of modern man, making it impossible to be an intermediary between man and ape. Even Time magazine in 1971 proclaimed the primitiveness of Neanderthal to be unwarranted, that he could walk the street today unrecognized, one writer even commenting that historians of the future may “declare us all insane for not detecting and refuting this incredible blunder with adequate determination.”
One of the main proponents pushing Neanderthal Man as an authentic species nowadays is Reiner Protsch, a German professor who dated the fossils at 36,000 years old allowing them to fit perfectly in the evolutionist’s timeline. In 2005, however, Protsch was forced to retire in disgrace by a panel of Frankfurt University heads who determined he had “fabricated data and plagiarized the work of his colleagues over the past 30 years.” The once-renowned “carbon-dating expert” has presently been completely ostracized from the scientific community. It has since been determined that all Neanderthal skeletal remains are no more than a few thousand years old, some only a few hundred! They have also found modern human DNA in the bones, that their brain capacity was 13% larger than the modern average, their height 5’9” comparable to our average, and they had advanced tools, buried their dead and enjoyed art!
University of Berlin Professor Rudolf Virchow, Ernst Haeckel’s former professor and the “father of modern pathology” back in 1872 concluded the original “Neanderthal” remains were simply that of an unfortunate homo sapiens who had suffered childhood rickets, adult arthritis, and was victim to several damaging blows to the head. Erik Trinkaus, a paleoanthropologist from New Mexico University concluded his examination stating, “Detailed comparisons of Neanderthal skeletal remains with those of modern humans have shown that there is nothing in Neanderthal anatomy that conclusively indicates locomotor, manipulative, intellectual, or linguistic abilities inferior to those of modern humans.”
In 1891-92, the next ape-man “discovery” was found in Java, Indonesia by Eugene Dubois, who “coincidentally” happened to be a student and apprentice of evolutionist hoaxster Ernst Haeckel! Dubois found a skullcap, a leg bone, a jaw fragment and three teeth, from which was reconstructed the ape-like “Java Man.” Within 10 years of its discovery, Java Man was the main subject of over 80 evolution books and articles. It was given the “scientific name,” of “Anthropopithecus erectus,” and later changed to “Pithecanthropus erectus” and finally “Homo erectus” undoubtedly for super-official pseudo-scientific reasons.
“Java man was discovered by a Dutchman. I’m a little embarrassed by that because I’m a Dutchman myself. His name was Eugene Dubois. The bones were found in 1891-92 on the Indonesian Island of Java in Southeast Asia along the banks of the Solo River. And there was an interesting assortment. He found a leg bone, a skullcap, a jaw fragment and three teeth. And that’s what he concocted Java man from. Interestingly enough some of the teeth were old and some young. The bones belonged to ape, female and male. It was an interesting conglomeration and the reason that people didn’t catch on to it is because the find of Dubois was kept from scholars for about 30 years. He also withheld the discovery of modern human remains, which were found in the same stratum as Java man. Of course, that would have ruined his claims that Java man was the ancestor of modern day humans. Finally, enough pressure was placed on him that the actual bones were allowed to be examined and the discrepancies were found. And eventually, enlightened America as well as the world found out that this was a hoax. Unfortuantely hoaxes die hard. [Recently] Time Magazine ran a cover story entitled “How Man Became Man” and starts off ridiculing Christians and Creationists then goes on to present Java man as though it were fact.” -Hank Hanegraaff, “The Face that Demonstrates the Farce of Evolution”
“Java Man’s” teeth were found to be of different ages and the bones a mixture of human and ape, with a giant gibbon skull! Rudolph Virchow, Haeckel’s own professor and the foremost pathology expert of his time stated, “In my opinion this creature was an animal, a giant gibbon, in fact. And the thigh bone has not the slightest connection with the skull.” He and many others have concluded the thigh bone is quite clearly human while the skullcap and teeth belonged to a primate.
In 1912 a doctor and paleo-anthropologist named Charles Dawson claimed to have found a jawbone and cranial fragment of an ape-man transitional form in a pit in Piltdown, England. It was alleged to be 500,000 years old and was displayed as absolute proof of human evolution in museums across the world. For the next 40 years, scores of “scientific” articles, artist reconstructions, and over 500 doctoral theses were written about “Piltdown man.” Objections and criticisms were raised immediately by contemporaries like Arthur Keith but managed to be mitigated by Dawson until 1953 when tests proved conclusively that the Piltdown skull was actually human and only a few hundred years old, while the lower protruding jaw was from a recently deceased orangutan!
Investigators found that Dawson had artificially worn down the orangutan jaw, and that the “primitive tools” discovered alongside the fossils were imitations Dawson had sharpened with steel implements! Dawson also filled the molar surfaces of the teeth to more resemble those of man, and stained all the fossils with potassium dichromate to give them an antiquated appearance. The stains quickly disappeared when dipped in acid however. Wilfred Le Gros Clark, a member of Joseph Weiner’s team who uncovered the forgery, stated that, “the evidences of artificial abrasion immediately sprang to the eye. Indeed so obvious did they seem it may well be asked, how was it that they had escaped notice before?” Within days, Piltdown man was removed from the British Museum where it had been on display for four decades.
Since conclusively being proven a hoax in 1953 many of Dawson’s other paleontological “finds” have also proven to be fakes or planted. In 2003, Dr. Miles Russell of Bournemouth University published the results of an investigation into Dawson’s antiquarian collection concluding that at least 38 specimens were clear fakes, noting that “Dawson’s entire academic career appears to have been built upon deceit, sleight of hand, fraud and deception, the ultimate gain being international recognition.”
The next fraudulent attempt at creating and propagating a supposed ape-man transitional form was carried out in 1922 by Henry Fairfield Osborn. Co-founder of the American Eugenics Society, President of the White Supremacist Pioneer Fund and director of the American Museum of Natural History, Osborn declared that he had been sent an anomalous tooth found in Snake Brook, Nebraska, which had characteristics of both ape and man! He determined that it came from the Pliocene period of ancient history, from the transitional species “Pithecanthropus erectus,” and affectionately labeled the tooth’s owner “Nebraska Man.”
“Nebraska man was also immediately given a ‘scientific name,’ Hesperopithecus haroldcooki. Many authorities gave Osborn their support. Based on this single tooth, reconstructions of the Nebraska man’s head and body were drawn. Moreover, Nebraska man was even pictured along with his wife and children, as a whole family in a natural setting.” -Harun Yahya, “The Evolution Deceit” (95)
Once “Nebraska Man” made the media rounds of popular publications and the pliable public was sufficiently propagandized, the story disappeared until 1928 when William Bryan and William Gregory had the opportunity to independently examine the tooth. Their investigations both conclusively found that the tooth did not belong to a man or ape, but was actually from an extinct species of wild American pig called Presthennops! After William Gregory published his article, “Hesperopithecus: Apparently Not an Ape Nor a Man,” in Science magazine all drawings and models of “Nebraska Man” and his “family” were quickly removed from evolutionist publications.
Henry Osborn himself was forced to concede that Nebraska Man, “Hesperopithecus haroldcooki,” the supposed example of the “Pliocene Pithecanthropus erectus” and his whole imaginary family were completely fictional fabrications. He never admitted to intentional fraud (and why would he?), but as an ardent evolutionist, eugenicist and white supremacist, a level of confirmation bias was likely. Osborn was even such a sadistic racist that he was quoted during a national debate unabashedly saying of WWI Army intelligence tests that; “I believe those tests were worth what the war cost, even in human life … We have learned once and for all that the Negro is not like us.”
“After Darwin advanced the claim with his book The Descent of Man that man evolved from ape-like living beings, he started to seek fossils to support this contention. However, some evolutionists believed that ‘half-man half-ape’ creatures were to be found not only in the fossil record, but also alive in various parts of the world. In the early 20th century, these pursuits for ‘living transitional links’ led to unfortunate incidents, one of the cruelest of which is the story of a Pygmy by the name of Ota Benga. Ota Benga was captured in 1904 by an evolutionist researcher in the Congo. In his own tongue, his name meant ‘friend.’ He had a wife and two children. Chained and caged like an animal, he was taken to the USA where evolutionist scientists displayed him to the public in the St. Louis World Fair along with other ape species and introduced him as ‘the closest transitional link to man.’ Two years later they took him to the Bronx Zoo in New York and there they exhibited him under the denomination of ‘ancient ancestors of man’ along with a few chimpanzee, a gorilla named Dinah, and an orangutan called Dohung. Dr. William Hornaday, the zoo’s evolutionist director gave long speeches on how proud he was to have this exceptional ‘transitional form’ in his zoo and treated caged Ota Benga as if he were an ordinary animal. Unable to bear the treatment he was subjected to, Ota Benga eventually committed suicide. Piltdown Man, Nebraska Man, Ota Benga… These scandals demonstrate that evolutionist scientists do not hesitate to employ any kind of unscientific method to prove their theories.” -Harun Yahya, “The Evolution Deceit” (96-97)
In 1927 Davidson Black declared he had discovered five crushed skulls and several teeth near Beijing belonging to an ancient ape-man species now widely known as “Peking Man.” Somewhere between 1941-1945 all the original bones were mysteriously “lost,” however, leaving only a few plaster casts left to examine! At the same site where this supposed “missing link” was found, there were also found the remains of 10 fully human skeletons who quarried nearby limestone, built fires and left behind a variety of tools. Many scientists now believe the tools were used on the Peking Man rather than by them. The back of the skulls were all bashed in and in that part of the world, monkey brains are a delicacy, so it is likely that Peking Man were actually Peking apes, and they were man’s meal, not man’s ancient ancestor.
In 1974 Donald Johansson discovered “Lucy” a three-foot tall supposedly three-million year-old “Australopithicine” in Ethiopia. Widely publicized as our oldest direct human ancestor, Lucy made the usual rounds of scientific magazine journals and school textbooks. Don Johansson modestly claimed that Lucy was “the most important find made by anyone in the history of the entire human race,” and the media heralded him a hero. He was promoted from assistant professor to receiving his own Institute for Human Biology at Berkley. During all this time he never allowed scientists to examine Lucy’s bones until 1982, eight years later. Since then, and as more “Australopithecine” skeletons have been found and examined, however, many leading evolutionists agree that Lucy is simply an extinct type of ape, similar to modern pygmy chimpanzees and nothing more. They may have walked slightly more upright than most apes, but were not bipedal or erect, could not talk, spent most time in trees, and walked on all fours.
Lord Solly Zuckerman and Professor Charles Oxnard did 15 years of research on Australopithecines along with a team of five specialists coming to the conclusion that all the various specimens of Australopithecus they examined were only an ordinary ape genus and definitely not bipedal. The French Science and Life magazine ran the cover story in May 1999 “Goodbye Lucy” writing about how “Lucy” the most famous fossil of Australopithecus was not the root of the human race and needs to be removed from our supposed family tree. However, even now in 2014 a movie named “Lucy” has just been released by Masonic “Universal Pictures” where the Lucy ape-woman fraud is still treated as scientific fact throughout the entire movie.
In 1982 a skull fragment found in the Spanish town of Orce was hailed to be the oldest fossilized human remain ever found in Eurasia! “Orce man” was supposedly a 17 year old ape-man who lived between 900,000 – 1,600,000 years ago, and was presented to the world with the usual reconstructed drawings showing a young, hairy man-ape teenager. In 1983, however, a team of scientists from France concluded that the skull fragment was actually from a four-month old donkey! A three-day scientific symposium had been scheduled so experts could examine and discuss the bone, but was immediately cancelled after the French investigation; embarrassed Spanish officials sent out 500 letters to the would-be attendees apologizing. After more conclusive tests The Daily Telegraph on May 14, 1984 carried the headline “Ass Taken For Man.”
Later in 1984, Kemoya Kimeu in a team led by paleoanthropologist Richard Leakey, discovered “Turkana Boy,” at Nariokotome near Lake Turkana, Kenya. Turkana Boy was proclaimed to be a pre-teen boy from 1.5-1.6 million years ago and is now regarded as the most complete early human skeleton ever found. Much like Neanderthal Man, however, Turkana Boy or “Narikotome Homo erectus,” is no different from modern man. American paleoanthropologist Alan Walker said, “I doubt the average pathologist could tell the difference between the fossil skeleton and that of a modern human.” He wrote that he laughed upon first seeing it because “it looked so much like a Neanderthal.”
Turkana Boy was bipedal, with arms and legs of human proportions, an upright skeletal structure, comparable in height, cranial size, and development rate of modern humans. Even the discovering team-leader Richard Leakey stated that the difference between this specimen of “Homo erectus” and modern man are no more pronounced than simple racial variances: “The shape of the skull, the degree of protrusion of the face, the robustness of the brows and so on… These differences are probably no more pronounced than we see today between the separate geographical races of modern humans. Such biological variation arises when populations are geographically separated from each other for significant lengths of time.”
So, when seen for what they really are, all the supposed ape-men discoveries and reconstructions are nothing but frauds and fantasies. Neanderthal Man was just an ordinary man, Java Man and Piltdown Man were composed of human and ape bones, Nebraska Man was actually a pig, Peking Man was actually a man’s meal, Lucy was just a monkey, Orce Man was a donkey, and Turkana Boy was just a boy!
“Reconstruction can be explained as drawing a picture or constructing a model of a living thing based on a single bone – sometimes only a fragment – that has been unearthed. The ‘ape-men’ we see in newspapers, magazines, or films are all reconstructions. The fossils that are claimed to be evidence for the human evolution scenario are in fact products of fraud. For more than 150 years, not even a single fossil to prove evolution has been found. As a matter of fact, the reconstructions (drawings or models) of the fossil remains made by the evolutionists are prepared speculatively precisely to validate the evolutionary thesis. David R. Pilbeam, an anthropologist from Harvard, stresses this fact when he says: ‘At least in paleoanthropology, data are still so sparse that theory heavily influences interpretations. Theories have, in the past, clearly reflected our current ideologies instead of the actual data.’ Since people are highly effected by visual information, these reconstructions best serve the purpose of evolutionists, which is to convince people that these reconstructed creatures really existed in the past.” -Harun Yahya, “The Evolution Deceit” (90)
All the many models, drawings, cartoons, mannequins, and movies made involving various “ape-men” are complete fiction and fabrication because no one can actually accurately determine the outward appearance of an animal based solely on bone structure. Soft tissue, which vanishes quickly after death and is responsible for the look of one’s eyes, ears, nose, lips, hair, eyebrows, skin etc., totally depends on the imagination of the person reconstructing them. Earnest A. Hooten of Harvard University stated, “To attempt to restore the soft parts is an even more hazardous undertaking. The lips, the eyes, the ears, and the nasal tip leave no clues on the underlying bony parts. You can with equal facility model on a Neanderthaloid skull the features of a chimpanzee or the lineaments of a philosopher. These alleged restorations of ancient types of man have very little if any scientific value and are likely only to mislead the public… So put not your trust in reconstructions.”
“There is no concrete fossil evidence to support the ‘ape-man’ image, which is unceasingly promulgated by the media and evolutionist academic circles. With brushes in their hands, evolutionists produce imaginary creatures, nevertheless, the fact that these drawings correspond to no matching fossils constitutes a serious problem for them. One of the interesting methods they employ to overcome this problem is to ‘produce’ the fossils they cannot find. Piltdown Man, which may be the biggest scandal in the history of science, is a typical example of this method.” -Harun Yahya, “The Evolution Deceit” (93)
The current evolutionist ape-to-human transitional theory goes “Australophithecus,” – “Homo habilis,” – “Homo erectus” – “Homo sapiens.” Australophithecus, which means “Southern Ape,” has been proven to be nothing but an extinct ape which closely resembles many modern chimpanzees in height, arm and leg length, skull shape, teeth, mandibular structure, and many other details. Homo habilis, a hypothetical classification created in the 1960s by Turkana Boy team-leader Richard Leakey was what evolutionists deemed necessary to exist between Australophithecus and Homo erectus, because the jump was far too drastic. There needed to be a species of ape-man with a larger cranial capacity that could walk upright and use tools.
Serendipitously for his career, fossils unearthed in the late 1980s were deemed Homo habilis, and Leakey was regarded a scientific genius! That is until his contemporaries Bernard Wood and C. Loring Brace determined the Homo habilis arms were too long, legs were too short, and skeletal structure too ape-like to be anything but an ape. Their fingers and toes were that of tree-climbers, and their jaws and cranial capacities were comparable to modern apes. American anthropologist Holly Smith in 1994 concluded Homo habilis was not Homo, or human, at all, but simply an ape just like Australopithecus. She stated that, “Restricting analysis of fossils to specimens satisfying these criteria, patterns of dental development of gracile australopithecines and Homo habilis remain classified with African apes. Those of Homo erectus and Neanderthals are classified with humans.”
So Australopithecus and Homo habilis, the first two classifications, are both actually fully ape, while Homo erectus and Homo sapiens, the second two classifications, are in fact fully human and comparable to modern man, with variances no greater than the natural variances of race and genetics. So even after 150 years of “discoveries” evolutionists are no closer to finding a true “transitional species” existing between ape and man, and no closer to proving their theory. Nor can they answer, how could apes develop bipedality, human arm/leg length ratios, erect spinal columns and complex linguistic skills? If humans evolved from apes, why do apes still exist? Why don’t any of these supposed transitional forms still exist now, and where are true examples in the fossil record?
“The evolutionists wrote the scenario of human evolution by arranging some of the ape skulls that suited their purpose in an order from the smallest to the biggest and scattering the skulls of some extinct human races among them. According to this scenario, men and today’s apes have common ancestors. These creatures evolved in time and some of them became the apes of today while another group that followed another branch of evolution became the men of today. However, all the paleontological, anatomical and biological findings have demonstrated that this claim of evolution is as fictitious and invalid as all the others. No sound or real evidence has been put forward to prove that there is a relationship between man and ape, except forgeries, distortions, and misleading drawings and comments. The fossil record indicates to us that throughout history, men have been men and apes have been apes.” -Harun Yahya, “The Evolution Deceit” (98)